Author Archives: garyfleener

Shell Games


shell game

I knew I’d seen this exact shape before (the dark one on the left) – the distinct, lopsided bowl, the pronounced “beak” and the pastry-like layers of shell growth. I was shucking my way through a sack of Hog Island oysters, freshly harvested from Tomales Bay in Northern California, and hustling to get an order of 12 off the raw bar and out to some hungry customers. I set the provocative little bivalve aside on the ice, and forgot about it until clean up later that evening. Then the connection came clearly – this odd-shaped oyster looked just like one I had seen last summer (the grey one on the right), an oyster from a very different time and place…. a fossil from an outcropping of Mancos Shale in central Utah (photo below), preserved in stone from the mid-Cretaceous – around 100 million years ago!  Utah shell creek

The similarities between the two shells are stunning. What is even more stunning is the obvious question underlying the “sisters from a different mister” – why? Why are these shells so similar, given all that has changed on planet Earth in 100 million years? How many animals living today look unchanged from their ancestors of the Cretaceous? Not many. So what is it about oysters, and the design of oysters, that makes this possible? The answer may lie in the nature of the intertidal habitat that oysters call (and many other marine invertebrates) call home.

to be continued……

New Year’s Posole

bowl o posole

Each year we have a holiday tradition (adopted from Gwen’s Santa Fe family heritage) of preparing posole rojo – the classic Mexican (and New Mexican) stew of “nixtamalized” corn cooked in bone broth with chili and other spices. With the exception of the pork (brought by the Spanish), this is a dish that might have been enjoyed all the way back to Mayan (and pre-Incan in the Andes) times. The word “nixtamalizado” (Spanish) or “nixtamalized” is derived from the Aztec language and refers to soaking corn in an alkali solution to remove the pericarp (outer covering). In addition to aiding the speed of cooking, this process also has the happy effect of dramatically increasing the availability of niacin and boosting corn flavor. This is also the process for making masa for tortillas and tamales (nixTAMALi).

Typically I buy the posole corn “prepared” – meaning that it has been nixtamalized somewhere else and then re-dried for sale. Gwen’s grandparents bought theirs from Casados Farms – a northern New Mexico institution and home of the distinct El Guique chili pepper. I can still get products from Casados Farms (a phone call to the Portrero Trading Post) but this year I wanted to try the nixtalization process from scratch. So I ordered up a 20# bag of organic yellow corn from Great River Organic Milling in Wisconsin. (A bit out of my foodshed, but organic field corn is surprisingly rare in the pinot-saturated Russian River Valley…). You can get the basic idea about the nixtamal process from a CIA instructional vid here. The corn turns a vibrant golden color in the calcium hydroxide (I used “mrs.wages” pickling lime) – which looks very cool.

Once the corn was cooling in its alkali soup (I soaked mine all night) I turned to the pork stock. Nearly all posole recipes seem to utilize trotters (pigs feet). Fortunately we have a great butcher shop – Sonoma County Meat Co. – that sells locallypigs feet raised, pastured pork. (The more I learn about CAFO-based meat production the more I want to know where my meats actually come from.) Trotters are cheap and create a stock that is rich and full of body. I also added some pork shoulder for shredding into the finished posole. Some folks add LOTS of pork, but I like to let the corn be the star. After simmering my freshly made posole in the strained stock I added lots of garlic, onion, Mexican oregano (a member of the verbena family), the shredded pork and of course – red chili. There are many ways of getting the chili into to stew but I had some incredible heirloom red chili from Chimayo, New Mexico, so that’s what I used. Posole takes plenty of salt – and I found that my homemade posole corn had a touch of sweetness. One of the best parts about posole is the fresh garnishes – cabbage, radish, cilantro, a squeeze of fresh lime – all are great. Plus, there should be a dish of good ground red chili to sprinkle in for extra chili flavor and kick. Buen Provecho!

jars of posole


Chicken soup for Syria

My friend Kendra put up this great post about the new cookbook “Soup for Syria: Recipes to Celebrate our Shared Humanity” – what a great story!

Kitchen Report

ChickenSoup Chicken soup from ‘Soup for Syria’ by Barbara Abdeni Massaad/Photo courtesy of Interlink Publishing

“Soup for Syria: Recipes to Celebrate our Shared Humanity,” by Barbara Abdeni Massaad, is a cookbook with a humanitarian purpose: 100 percent of the profits goes to support Syrian refugees. Visit to see how you, too, can make a difference.

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Food Geography

Broadly stated, Food Geography is the study of where our food comes from – and why. It is a field that seeks to answer questions about patterns of production and consumption, the geographic origins of crop domestication, and even  spatial patterns of cuisine and cooking methods. Learning a bit about where our food comes from enriches and enlivens a meal, and connects us to larger global stories – peoples and cultures that might seem very distant but are actually quite connected.

About the Geographers

Gary at AusangateGARY FLEENER

I grew up in Oklahoma and was not particularly interested the world beyond KFC and Big Macs. But a study abroad to China in the mid 1980’s changed all that. From 1985 to 1987 I spent most of my time in the PRC – learning Mandarin and prowling the back streets of Nanjing and Beijing for alternatives to the dorm cafeteria. We found an unexpected and vibrant economy of home kitchen restaurants – serving dishes that had nothing in common with American-style “sticky brown” Chinese food. These entrepreneurial families simply opened their homes for a few hours each evening, offering whatever was seasonal in the market. Never mind that it was illegal at that time! There were also the street vendors – steamed buns, roasted sweet potatoes, and fresh yogurt were all common and all deliciously fascinating to an Okie from, well, nearby Muskogee. From those beginnings my education, work and gustatory curiosity have taken me the many other corners of the planet – South America and South Asia in particular. My PhD in Geography was not initially oriented toward food and agriculture (rather rivers and floods). But nowadays I see food and environmental geography as interwined. I spend much of my professional life planning and organizing educational travel programs – and food is always near the center of the itinerary. What we eat and how we eat define us culturally as much as anything else. And street food diplomacy may be the most influential kind. Who can deny the common humanity of peeling roasted sweet potatoes together – curbside on a frosty winter morning?

Where Our Food Comes From – by Gary Paul Nabhan


Arizona-based geographer Gary Paul Nabhan retraces the seed collecting travels of Russian scientist Nikolay Vavilov, and reflects on the contemporary state of our global “centers of crop diversification”and their importance to global food security.

Review in progress…

Other useful sites relating to this book:

Gary Paul Nabhan’s website

Island Press promotional video for “Where our Food Comes From”

“The Origins of Agriculture and Crop Domestication” Proceedings of the Harlan Symposium, May 1997, Aleppo, Syria

Map Credits: “Vavilov-center” by Redwoodseed – en-wiki [1]. Licensed under CC BY 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons –